September 11 attacks11 September 2001
The September 11 attacks (also referred to as September 11, September 11th or 9/11) were a series of four coordinated suicide attacks upon the United States in New York City and the Washington, D.C. areas on September 11, 2001. On that Tuesday morning, 19 terrorists from the Islamist militant group Al-Qaeda hijacked four passenger jets. The hijackers intentionally crashed two planes, American Airlines Flight 11 and United Airlines Flight 175 into the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center in New York City; both towers collapsed within two hours.
Hijackers crashed American Airlines Flight 77 into the Pentagon in Arlington, Virginia. The fourth jet, United Airlines Flight 93, crashed into a field near Shanksville, Pennsylvania after passengers attempted to take control before it could reach the hijackers’ intended target in Washington, D.C. Nearly 3,000 died in the attacks.
Assassination of Yitzhak Rabin04 November 1995
Yitzhak Rabin (help·info) (Hebrew: יִצְחָק רַבִּין IPA: [jitsˈχak ʁaˈbin]; March 1, 1922 – November 4, 1995) was an Israeli politician, statesman and general. He was the fifth Prime Minister of Israel, serving two terms in office, 1974–77 and 1992 until his assassination in 1995.
In 1994, Rabin won the Nobel Peace Prize together with Shimon Peres and Yasser Arafat. He was assassinated by right-wing Israeli radical Yigal Amir, who was opposed to Rabin’s signing of the Oslo Accords. Rabin was the first native-born prime minister of Israel, the only prime minister to be assassinated and the second to die in office after Levi Eshkol.
Assassination of Martin Luther King04 April 1968
Martin Luther King, Jr. (January 15, 1929 – April 4, 1968) was an American clergyman, activist, and prominent leader in the African-American Civil Rights Movement. He is best known for his role in the advancement of civil rights in the United States and around the world, using nonviolent methods following the teachings of Mahatma Gandhi. King has become a national icon in the history of modern American liberalism
Nelson Mandela imprisoned for 27 years12 June 1964
In 1962 he was arrested and convicted of sabotage and other charges, and sentenced to life in prison. Mandela served 27 years in prison, spending many of these years on Robben Island. Following his release from prison on 11 February 1990, Mandela led his party in the negotiations that led to democracy in 1994. As president, he frequently gave priority to reconciliation, while introducing policies aimed at combating poverty and inequality in South Africa.
Assassination of John F. Kennedy22 November 1963
John Fitzgerald “Jack” Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), often referred to by his initials JFK, was the 35th President of the United States, serving from 1961 until his assassination in 1963.
Kennedy was assassinated on November 22, 1963, in Dallas, Texas. Lee Harvey Oswald was charged with the crime, but was shot and killed two days later by Jack Ruby before a trial could take place. The FBI, the Warren Commission, and the House Select Committee on Assassinations (HSCA) officially concluded that Oswald was the lone assassin, with the HSCA allowing for the possibility of conspiracy based on disputed acoustic evidence. Today, Kennedy continues to rank highly in public opinion ratings of former U.S. presidents.
The 14th Dalai Lama exiled10 March 1959
During the 1959 Tibetan uprising, which China regards as an uprising of feudal landlords, the Dalai Lama, who regards the uprising as an expression of widespread discontent, fled to India, where he denounced the People’s Republic and established a Tibetan government in exile. A charismatic speaker, he has since traveled the world, advocating for the welfare of Tibetans, teaching Tibetan Buddhism and talking about the importance of compassion as the source of a happy life. Around the world, institutions face pressure from China not to accept him. He has spoken about such topics as abortion, economics, firearms, and sexuality, and has been the subject of controversy for his alleged treatment of Dorje Shugden followers, his office’s relationship with the CIA, and other issues.
Lavon Affair01 June 1954
The Lavon Affair refers to a failed Israeli covert operation, code named Operation Susannah, conducted in Egypt in the Summer of 1954. As part of thefalse flag operation,#cite_note-Global_terrorism-0″> a group of Egyptian Jews were recruited by Israeli military intelligence for plans to plant bombs inside Egyptian, American andBritish-owned targets. The attacks were to be blamed on the Muslim Brotherhood, Egyptian Communists, “unspecified malcontents” or “local nationalists” with the aim of creating a climate of sufficient violence and instability to induce the British government to retain its occupying troops in Egypt’s Suez Canalzone.#cite_note-Teveth-1″> The operation caused no casualties, except for those members of the cell who committed suicide after being captured.
Assassination of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi30 January 1948
Pioneering the use of non-violent resistance to tyrannical colonial rule through mass civil disobedience, saying, “I shall resist organized tyranny to the uttermost.” he developed a model to fight for civil rights and freedom that he called satyagraha. He founded his doctrine of nonviolent protest to achieve political and social progress based upon ahimsa, or total nonviolence for which he is internationally renowned.
United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine29 November 1947
The United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine was a plan for the future government of Palestine. The Plan was described as a Plan of Partition with Economic Union which, after the termination of the British Mandate, would lead to the creation of independent Arab and Jewish States and the Special International Regime for the City of Jerusalem. On 29 November 1947, the General Assembly adopted a resolution recommending the adoption and implementation of the Plan as Resolution 181(II).
Part I of the Plan contained provisions dealing with the Termination of the Mandate, Partition and Independence. The Mandate would be terminated as soon as possible and the United Kingdom would withdraw from Palestine no later than the previously announced date of 1 August 1948. The new states would come into existence two months after the withdrawal, but no later than 1 October 1948. The Plan sought to address the conflicting objectives and claims of two competing movements: Arab nationalism and Jewish nationalism (Zionism). Part II of the Plan included a detailed description of the proposed boundaries for each state. The Plan also called for Economic Union between the proposed states, and for the protection of religious and minority rights.
The Plan was accepted by the leaders of the Jewish community in Palestine, through the Jewish Agency. The Plan was rejected by leaders of the Arab community, including the Palestinian Arab Higher Committee, who were supported in their rejection by the states of the Arab League. The Arab leadership (in and out of Palestine) opposed partition and claimed all of Palestine. The Arabs argued that it violated the rights of the majority of the people in Palestine, which at the time was 65% non-Jewish (1,200,000) and 35% Jewish (650,000).
Plan Dalet or Plan D01 May 1947
Plan Dalet, or Plan D, (Hebrew: תוכנית ד’, Tokhnit dalet) was a plan worked out by the Haganah, a Jewish paramilitary group and the forerunner of the Israel Defense Forces, in Palestine in autumn 1947 to spring 1948. Its purpose is much debated. The plan was a set of guidelines the stated purpose of which was to take control of the territory of the Jewish State and to defend its borders and people, including the Jewish population outside of the borders, in expectation of an invasion by regular Arab armies. “Plan Dalet” called for the conquest and securing of Arab towns and villages inside the area alloted to the Jewish state and along its borders. In case of resistance, the population of conquered villages was to be expelled outside the borders of the Jewish state. If no resistance was met, the residents could stay put, under military rule. The intent of Plan Dalet is subject to much controversy, with historians on the one extreme asserting that it was entirely defensive, and historians on the other extreme asserting that the plan aimed at maximum conquest and expulsion.
Nuclear Weapons06 August 1945
Only two nuclear weapons have been used in the course of warfare, both by the United States near the end of World War II. On 6 August 1945, a uranium gun-type device code-named “Little Boy” was detonated over the Japanese city of Hiroshima. Three days later, on 9 August, a plutonium implosion-type device code-named “Fat Man” was exploded over Nagasaki, Japan.
These two bombings resulted in the deaths of approximately 200,000 Japanese people—mostly civilians—from acute injuries sustained from the explosions. The role of the bombings in Japan’s surrender, and their ethical status, remain the subject of scholarly and popular debate.
World War II01 September 1939
World War II, or the Second World War (often abbreviated as WWII or WW2), was a global armed conflict that was underway by 1939 and ended in 1945. It involved a vast majority of the world’s nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis.
It was the most widespread war in history, with more than 100 million people serving in military units. In a state of “total war“, the major participants placed their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities at the service of the war effort, erasing the distinction between civilian and military resources.
Great Depression lasted 1930 to 194601 July 1930
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression in the decade preceding World War II. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations, but in most countries it started in 1930 after the passage of the United States’ Smoot-Hawley Tariff bill (June 17), and lasted until the late 1930s or middle 1940s.#cite_note-0“> It was the longest, most widespread, and deepest depression of the 20th century.#cite_note-ReferenceA-1″>[
Wall Street bombing16 September 1920
On September 16, 1920, close to the corner of Wall and Broad Street, the busiest corner of the financial district and across the offices of the Morgan Bank, a powerful bomb exploded. It killed 38 and seriously injured 143 people. The perpetrators were never identified or apprehended. The explosion did, however, help fuel the Red Scare that was underway at the time.
World War I28 July 1914
World War I (WWI), which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918. It involved all the world’s great powers, which were assembled in two opposing alliances: the Allies (based on the Triple Entente of the United Kingdom, France and Russia) and the Central Powers (originally centred around the Triple Allianceof Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy; but, as Austria–Hungary had taken the offensive against the agreement, Italy did not enter into the war).
Federal Reserve23 December 1913
The Federal Reserve was enacted on December 23, 1913 by President Woodrow Wilson.
Ford Model T - First assembly line produced car01 January 1908
The Ford Model T (colloquially known as the Tin Lizzie, T‑Model Ford, or T) is an automobile that was produced by Henry Ford‘s Ford Motor Company from September 1908 to October 1927. It is generally regarded as the first affordable automobile, the car that opened travel to the common middle-class American; some of this was because of Ford’s innovations, including assembly line production instead of individual hand crafting. The Ford Model T was named the world’s most influential car of the 20th century in an international poll
The automotive industry in the United States began in the 1890s and rapidly evolved into the largest in the world as a result of the size of the domestic market and the use of mass-production. The United States was overtaken as the largest automobile producer by Japan in the 1980s, and subsequently by China in 2009, and is currently the third-largest manufacturer in the world by volume. In 2010, 7,761,443 automobiles were manufactured in the United States, although annual production levels of up to 15 million units were achieved in the 2000s.
Bahá'u'lláh died after 24 years in prison29 May 1892
Bahá’u’lláh taught that humanity is one single race and that the age has come for its unification in a global society. His claim to divine revelation resulted in persecution and imprisonment by the Persian and Ottoman authorities, and his eventual 24-year confinement in the prison city of `Akka, Palestine (present day Israel), where he died.
First engine powered car "Mercedes Benz"01 January 1885
His first Motorwagen was built in 1885, and he was awarded the patent for its invention as of his application on January 29, 1886. Benz began promotion of the vehicle on July 3, 1886, and about 25 Benz vehicles were sold between 1888 and 1893, when his first four-wheeler was introduced along with a model intended for affordability.
Assassination of Abraham Lincoln14 April 1865
The assassination of United States President Abraham Lincoln took place on Good Friday, April 14, 1865, as the American Civil Warwas drawing to a close. The assassination occurred five days after the commanding General of the Army of Northern Virginia, Robert E. Lee, surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant and the Army of the Potomac. Lincoln was the first American president to be successfully assassinated, though an unsuccessful attempt had been made on Andrew Jackson thirty years before in 1835.
Confederate States of America29 May 1861
The Confederate States of America (CSA or C.S.), commonly referred to as the Confederacy, was an unrecognized confederation of secessionist American states existing from 1861 to 1865. It was originally formed by seven slave states in the Lower South region of the United States whose regional economy was mostly dependent upon agriculture, particularly cotton, and a plantation system that relied upon slave labor.
First working steam-power vehicle01 January 1672
Around 1672 Verbiest designed – as a toy for the Chinese Emperor – a steam-propelled trolley which was, quite possibly, the first working steam-powered vehicle (‘auto-mobile’). Verbiest describes it in his workAstronomia Europea. As it was only 65 cm long, and therefore effectively a scale model, not designed to carry human passengers, nor a driver, it is not strictly accurate to call it a ‘car’
Mechanical calculator01 January 1642
In 1642, the Renaissance saw the invention of the mechanical calculator, a device that could perform all four arithmetic operations without relying on human intelligence. The mechanical calculator was at the root of the development of computers in two separate ways.
Initially, it was in trying to develop more powerful and more flexible calculators that the computer was first theorized by Charles Babbage and then developed.
Secondly, development of a low-cost electronic calculator, successor to the mechanical calculator, resulted in the development by Intel of the first commercially available microprocessor integrated circuit.
Gregorian calendar24 February 1582
The Gregorian calendar, also called the Western calendar and the Christian calendar, is the internationally accepted civil calendar. It was introduced by Pope Gregory XIII, after whom the calendar was named, by a decree signed on 24 February 1582; the decree, a papal bull, is known by its opening words, Inter gravissimas. The reformed calendar was adopted later that year by a handful of countries, with other countries adopting it over the following centuries.
Crusades01 January 1095
The Crusades were a series of religious expeditionary wars blessed by the Pope and the Catholic Church, with the stated goal of restoring Christian access to the holy places in and near Jerusalem. The Crusades were originally launched in response to a call from the leaders of the Byzantine Empire for help to fight the expansion into Anatolia of Muslim Seljuk Turks who had cut off access to Jerusalem. The crusaders comprised military units of Roman Catholics from all over western Europe, and were not under unified command. The main series of Crusades, primarily against Muslims, occurred between 1095 and 1291. Historians have given many of the earlier crusades numbers. After some early successes, the later crusades failed and the crusaders were defeated and forced to return home.
Battle of Karbala10 October 0680
The Battle of Karbala took place on Muharram 10, in the year 61 of the Islamic calendar (October 10, 680) inKarbala, in present day Iraq. The battle was between a small group of supporters and relatives of Muhammad‘s grandson Husain ibn Ali, and a much larger military detachment from the forces of Yazid I, the Umayyad caliph, whom Husain had refused to recognise as caliph. Husain and all his supporters were killed, including Husain’s six months old infant son, and the women and children taken as prisoners. The dead are regarded as martyrs by Muslims, and the battle has a central place in Shi’ah history and tradition, and has frequently been recounted in Shi’ah Islamic literature.
Anno Domini01 January 0525
Anno Domini (abbreviated as AD or A.D.) and Before Christ (abbreviated as BC or B.C.) are designations used to label or number years used with the Julian and Gregorian calendars. This calendar era is based on the traditionally reckoned year of the conception or birth of Jesus of Nazareth, withAD counting years after the start of this epoch, and BC denoting years before the start of the epoch.
There is no year zero in this scheme, so the year AD 1 immediately follows the year 1 BC. This dating system was devised in 525, but was not widely used until after 800.
Assassination of Alexander Severus18 March 0235
Severus Alexander (Latin: Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexander Augustus; 1 October 208 – 18 March 235) was Roman Emperor from 222 to 235. Alexander was the last emperor of the Severan dynasty. He succeeded his cousin Elagabalus upon the latter’s assassination in 222, and was ultimately assassinated himself, marking the epoch event for the Crisis of the Third Century — nearly fifty years of civil wars, foreign invasion, and collapse of the monetary economy.
Temple in Jerusalem or Holy Temple01 January 0070
Destroyed 70 AD by the Romans.
The Temple in Jerusalem or Holy Temple (Hebrew: Hebrew: בֵּית־הַמִּקְדָּשׁ, Modern: Beyt HaMikdash, Tiberian: Bēṯ HamMiqdāš, Ashkenazi: Beis HaMikdosh) was one of a series of structures which were historically located on theTemple Mount in the Old City of Jerusalem, the current site of the Dome of the Rock. Historically, these successive temples stood at this location and functioned as the centre of ancient Israelite and later Jewish worship. According to classical Jewish belief, the Temple acted as the figurative “footstool” of God’s presence and a Third Temple will be built there in the future.
Jesus of Nazareth - AD01 January 0001
Jesus of Nazareth ( /ˈdʒiːzəs/; 7–2 BC/BCE to 30–36 AD/CE), also referred to as Jesus Christ or simply Christ, is the central figure of Christianity and is also regarded as an important prophet of God in Islam. Most Christian denominations venerate him as God the Sonincarnated and believe that he rose from the dead after being crucified.
The principal sources of information regarding Jesus are the Bible’s four canonical gospels, which most biblical scholars find useful for reconstructing Jesus’ life and teachings. Scholars have correlated the New Testament accounts with non-Christian historical records to arrive at an estimated chronology for the major episodes in the life of Jesus.
Rome01 January 0001
Rome (English pronunciation: /ˈroʊm/; Italian: Roma pronounced [ˈroːma]; Latin: Rōma) is a city and special comune (“Roma Capitale”) in Italy. Rome is the capital of Italy, the capital of Lazio (Latin: Latium) and the principal town of the Province of Rome. With over 2.7 million residents
Rome’s history spans two and a half thousand years. It was the capital city of the Roman Kingdom, the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, which was the dominant power in Western Europe and the lands bordering the Mediterranean for over seven hundred years from the 1st century BC until the 7th century AD and the city is regarded as one of the birthplaces of western civilization. Since the 1st century AD Rome has been the seat of the Papacy and, after the end of Byzantine domination, in the 8th century it became the capital of the Papal States, which lasted until 1870. In 1871 Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy, and in 1946 that of the Italian Republic.
Dinosaurs01 January 0000
Dinosaurs are a diverse group of animals of the clade Dinosauria. They first appeared during the Triassic period, approximately 230 million years ago, and became the dominant terrestrial vertebrates for 135 million years, from the beginning of the Jurassic (about 200 million years ago) until the end of the Cretaceous (65.5 million years ago), when the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event led to the extinction of most dinosaur groups at the close of the Mesozoic era.
Dinosaurs are a varied group of animals from taxonomic, morphological and ecological standpoints. Birds, at over 9,000 living species, are the most diverse group of vertebrates besides perciform fish. Using fossil evidence, paleontologists have identified over 500 distinct genera and more than 1,000 different species of non-avian dinosaurs.
Dinosaurs are represented on every continent by both extant species and fossil remains. Some are herbivorous, others carnivorous. Most dinosaurs have been bipedal, though many extinct groups included quadrupedal species, and some were able to shift between these body postures.
The Beginning - 4.54 billion years ago...01 January 0000
This image describes earth in it’s earliest form…
Biological Events Timeline: (Ma = Million years before present)
First bacteria – 3500 Ma
Early eukaryotes – 1900-1700 Ma
Trace animal fossils – 1000 Ma
Abundant soft-bodied animals – 700 Ma
First fish – 505 Ma
Early land plants – 438 Ma
First amphibians – 370 Ma
First reptiles – 310 Ma
End Permian mass extinction event (destroyed 82% of all genera) – 245 Ma
Dinosaurs appear – 240 Ma
First mammals – 225 Ma
First birds – 200 Ma
Flowering plants appear – 140 Ma
End Cretaceous mass extinction event (including last dinosaurs); age of mammals begins – 66 to 65 Ma
Early horses adn other familiar animals – 37 Ma
Earliest humans – 2 Ma
Humans dominant – 0 Ma (now)
Geological Events Timeline:
Formation of Earth – 4600 Ma
Oldest rocks yet discovered – 3950 Ma
Significant oxygen in atmosphere – 1500 Ma
Start of formation of Appalachian Mountains – 450 Ma
Start of supercontinent Pangaea (all continents pushed together) – 360 Ma
Abundant coal-forming swamps – 320 Ma
Break-up of Pangaea begins 225 Ma
Massive volcanic activity marking opening of north Atlantic Ocean – 60 Ma
Formation of Rocky Mountains – 60 Ma
Major deformation of Alps and Himalayas – 50 Ma
Ice Age which covered much of Ohio – 1.6 Ma to 10,000 years
Hawaii (big island) eruptions start – 0.7 Ma
Eruption of Mount St. Helens – 0 Ma (May 1980)
Geological Eras Information:
Archaean Era 3600-4600 Ma(origin of life, beginning of photosynthesis, increaed abundance of oxygen in atmosphere, diversification of prokaryotes)
Proterozoic Era 2500-3600 Ma(earliest eukaryotes, trace animal fossils, first multicellular fossils)
Paleozoic Era 290-2500 Ma
Cambrian Period 543-2500 Ma(marine animals diversify, diverse algae)
Ordovician Period 500-543 Ma(diversification of invertebrates, mass extinction at the end of this period)
Sulurian Period 439-500 Ma(earliest terrestrial vascular plants)
Devonian Period 409-439 Ma(diversification of boney fishes, mass extinction at the end of this period)
Carboniferous Period 354-409 Ma(Gondwanaland and small northern continents form, early winged insects, first reptiles)
Permian Period 290-354 Ma(Pangaea, glaciations, major mass extinction of marine life at end of this period)
Mesozoic Era 144-290 Ma
Triassic Period 251-290 Ma(continents begin to separate, first dinosaurs, first mammals)
Jurassic Period 206-251 Ma(first birds, gymnosperms dominate, evolution of angiosperms)
Cretaceous Period 144-206 Ma(most continents separated, mass extinction at end of period including dinosaurs)
Cenozoic Era 0.01-144 Ma
Tertiary Period 5.2-144 Ma (continentss near modern positions, climate cools, radiation of mammals, birds, snakes, pollinating insects, angiosperms)
Paleocene Epoch 65-144 Ma
Eocene Epoch 55.6-65 Ma
Oligocene Epoch 33.5-55.6 Ma
Miocene Epoch 23.8-33.5 Ma
Pliocene Epoch 5.2-23.8 Ma
Quaternary Period 0.01-5.2 Ma (continents in modern positions, repeated glaciations, lowering of sea level, extinctions of large mammals, evolution ofHomo erectus and Homo sapiens, rise of agriculture)
Pleistocene Epoch 1.8-5.2 Ma
Recent (Holocene) Epoch 0.01-1.8 Ma
Homo erectus 1.5 Million Years Ago30 November -0001
Homo erectus (meaning “upright man,” from the Latin ērĭgĕre, “to put up, set upright”) is an extinct species of hominid that lived from the end of the Pliocene epoch to the later Pleistocene, about 1.3 to 1.8 million years ago. The species originated in Africa and spread as far as India, China and Java.